There are many styluses in the market but it generally comes down to two types: active and capacitive.
When you're buying a tablet for drawing purposes, or for use as a digital sketchpad, you should know the difference between active and capacitive styluses so that you can spend your money wisely.
The pros and cons to each type of stylus are related to how the stylus works and the technology involved.
A capacitive screen has an electrostatic field. When tapping on the screen with your finger, it will distort the field. The processor will detect where the distortion happens and work out what you're tapping on.
One condition for this to work is, the tip has to be wide enough to generate capacitance for the screen to register. That's why styluses cannot have tips that are too small.
An active stylus works with a digitizer screen. The digitizer is a special sensor built into the touch screen that actively senses for the presence of a compatible stylus.
This digitizer technology allows for additional features that are not possible with capacitive styluses. For example, when the stylus hovers on the touch-screen, a cursor may appear, and when the cursor is over a file you can click on the stylus side button to get a contextual menu. Or with some styluses, you can flip the stylus around and the tablet would automatically switch to erasing mode.
+ They work with all touch-screens: Such styluses will work on both Android, iOS and Windows tablets. By the way, the iPad uses a capacitive screen. There aren't any active styluses that work with iPads.
+ They are cheap: There really isn't a lot of technology involved to justify a high price tag.
+ They don't require batteries (usually): A capacitive stylus can also be a digital stylus. I'm not sure whether these digital styluses are actually capacitive so I shall just use the term "capacitive" with quotes. For example, Adonit makes a lot of such styluses for iOS devices. These digital styluses require battery power. The battery power is used to simulate capacitance to work with a small tip. These digital styluses typically connect to the tablet via Bluetooth for extra features, e.g allows for the use of shortcut buttons on the side or pressure sensitivity.
- The tip is big and blocks off the lines beneath: Self explanatory.
- The tip is not as accurate as an active stylus: A capacitive stylus is not as accurate because the large tip blocks the line of sight with the lines produced. However, there's a stylus called the Adonit Jot Pro with a plastic disc that allows you to see through to the line and is extremely accurate.
- There is no palm rejection: The tablet can't really differentiate the stylus tip from your finger tips. So no easy way for the tablet or app to implement palm rejection perfectly. Apple Pencil seems to be the only stylus currently to have good palm rejection capability, but it's not 100% flawless either.
Drawing with capacitive stylus will involve lifting your hand from the screen to prevent stray strokes.
- There is no pressure sensitivity: There's no digitizer to sense the pressure you apply with the stylus so you don't get pressure sensitivity with capacitive styluses.
- Can have parallax error: Where the lines come out from beneath the tip depends on the angle the stylus is held at. That's why some drawing apps allow you to choose your hand posture. Sometimes, parallax may appear when the touch-screen is in portrait mode, not landscape mode, and sometimes it's the other way round.
- Digital "capacitive" stylus have jitter problem: The major downside of digital "capacitive" styluses is when drawing diagonal lines slowly, those lines tend to be affected by jitter and appear wavy. Some stylus will exhibit more obvious jitter while others less. This affects accuracy and is often a deal breaker for artists who demand accuracy. This problem only affects digital styluses. And such digital stylus are only created for specific devices.
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